By Blackburn Ch. M.

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**Extra resources for An Application of the Quantum Theory of Band Spectra to the First Negative Deslandres Group of Carbon**

**Sample text**

The formal theory of master equations will be discussed in Chap. 7 (see also Zeh 2001). Their approximate foundation in terms of a global unitary Schr¨ odinger equation requires very specific (statistically improbable) cosmic initial conditions. According to a universal Schr¨ odinger equation, quantum correlations with the environment are permanently created with great efficiency for all macroscopic systems, thus leading to decoherence, defined as the irreversible dislocalization of phase relations (see Chap.

4 of Zeh 2001). Although the Wigner function is formally analogous to a phase space distribution, it does, according to its derivation, by no means represent an ensemble of classical states (phase space points). This fact is reflected by its potentially negative values, while even a Gaussian wave packet, which leads to a non-negative Wigner function, is nonetheless one (pure) quantum state. 13) is conveniently measured by the latter’s formal entropy, such as the linear entropy Slin = trace(ρ − ρ2 ).

Effective “open systems quantum dynamics” has indeed been postulated as an approximation for calculating forward in time in analogy to the Boltzmann equation in the form of semigroups or master equations. An equivalent formalism was introduced by Feynman and Vernon (1963) in terms of path integrals (see Chap. 5). This approach can not explain the appearance of proper mixtures unless it is meant to postulate a fundamental correction to the Schr¨ odinger equation. The formal theory of master equations will be discussed in Chap.

### An Application of the Quantum Theory of Band Spectra to the First Negative Deslandres Group of Carbon by Blackburn Ch. M.

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