By S Cortassa; et al
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Additional info for An introduction to metabolic and cellular engineering
N 1,900 Mus musculus 70,000 3,300 Homo sapiens 70,000 3,300 Nicotiana tabacum 43,000 4,500 Arabidopsis thaliana 16,000–33,000 70–145 N, not available. Reprinted from Cell, 86, Miklos and Rubin, The role of the genome project in determining gene function: Insights from model organisms, 521-529. Introduction 21 Temporal and Spatial Scaling in Cellular Processes Biological processes at sub-cellular, cellular and supra-cellular levels scale in space and time (Lloyd, 1992; Aon and Cortassa, 1993, 1997).
These phenomena seem to arise from the complexity of living systems with respect to their simultaneous structural and functional organization at many levels of organization. It has been suggested that the emergent property of cell function arises from transitions between levels of organization at bifurcation points in the dynamics of biological processes (Aon and Cortassa, 1997). At bifurcation points, a dynamic system loses stability and behavioural changes occur. These may be quantitative, qualitative, or both (Fig.
Both the largest flux differences and the largest variations in enzyme levels were observed for the glycolytic enzymes. On the bases of: (i) the higher level of all glycolytic enzymes detected in low oxygen chemostat cultures, and (ii) the reduction only in the levels of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, in low glucose chemostat cultures, Vriezen and van Dijken (1998) conclude that the down-regulation of glycolysis is only partially accomplished at the level of enzyme synthesis and flux modulation is primarily effected via concentrations of substrates, activators, and inhibitors (bottom layer according to Fig.
An introduction to metabolic and cellular engineering by S Cortassa; et al